Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracInstall


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Timestamp:
Sep 4, 2018, 1:56:10 PM (2 years ago)
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trac
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  • TracInstall

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.2
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3
     4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [http://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://genshi.edgewall.org Genshi] templating system.
     5
     6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     7
     8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     9
     10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     11
     12[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     13
     14== Dependencies
     15=== Mandatory Dependencies
     16To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     17
     18 * [http://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.6 and < 3.0
     19   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.5 in this release)
     20 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     21 * [http://genshi.edgewall.org/wiki/Download Genshi], version >= 0.6
     22
     23You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     24
     25==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     26
     27As you must be using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     28
     29Optionally, you may install a newer version of [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     30
     31==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     32
     33You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     34 * [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
     35 * [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     36
     37See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     38
     39==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     40
     41Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
     42
     43 * [http://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     44 * [http://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
     45
     46Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     47
     48=== Optional Dependencies
     49
     50==== Subversion
     51
     52[http://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     53
     54There are [http://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [http://alagazam.net Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
     55
     56For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     57
     58{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     59**Note:**
     60* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     61* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     62}}}
     63
     64==== Git
     65
     66[http://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     67
     68==== Other Version Control Systems
     69
     70Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     71
     72==== Web Server
     73A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     74
     75Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     76 * [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     77  * [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and [http://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     78  * [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     79 * a [http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     80 * an [http://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     81   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     82 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     83 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     84   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     85   
     86
     87==== Other Python Packages
     88
     89 * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
     90   needed for localization support
     91 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     92   for WikiRestructuredText.
     93 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     94   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     95 * [http://pytz.sf.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     96   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     97   an internal time zone implementation.
     98
     99{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     100**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     101}}}
     102
     103Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     104
     105== Installing Trac
     106
     107The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     108
     109It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     110
     111=== Using `easy_install`
     112Trac can be installed from PyPI or the Subversion repository using [http://pypi.python.org/pypi/setuptools setuptools].
     113
     114A few examples:
     115
     116 - Install the latest stable version of Trac:
     117 {{{#!sh
     118$ easy_install Trac
     119}}}
     120 - Install latest development version:
     121 {{{#!sh
     122$ easy_install http://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     123}}}
     124   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
     125   either use a released version or install from source
     126
     127More information can be found on the [trac:wiki:setuptools setuptools] page.
     128
     129{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     130**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in [#DeployingTrac Deploying Trac].
     131}}}
     132
     133=== Using `pip`
     134'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
     135To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
     136
     137Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
     138
     139 {{{#!sh
     140$ pip install trac psycopg2
     141}}}
     142or
     143 {{{#!sh
     144$ pip install trac mysql-python
     145}}}
     146
     147Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
     148
     149pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
     150
     151All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
     152
     153Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=browse&show=all&c=516 here]) through pip.
     154
     155=== From source
     156Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
     157
     158{{{#!sh
     159$ python ./setup.py install
     160}}}
     161
     162''You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
     163
     164This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
     165of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
     166
     167If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
     168{{{#!sh
     169$ python ./setup.py install
     170}}}
     171Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
     172
     173=== Using installer
     174
     175On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     176
     177=== Using package manager
     178
     179Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. Note however, that the version provided by your package manager may not be the latest release.
     180
     181=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
     182
     183To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
     184{{{#!sh
     185$ easy_install --help
     186}}}
     187
     188Also see [http://docs.python.org/2/install/index.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
     189
     190Specifically, you might be interested in:
     191{{{#!sh
     192$ easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
     193}}}
     194or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
     195{{{#!sh
     196$ easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages
     197}}}
     198
     199{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     200**Mac OS X Note:** On Mac OS X 10.6,  running `easy_install trac` will install into `/usr/local` and `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages` by default.
     201
     202The `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands will be placed in `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
     203}}}
     204
     205== Creating a Project Environment
     206
     207A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     208
     209A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     210{{{#!sh
     211$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     212}}}
     213
     214You will be prompted for the information needed to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     215
     216Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     217
     218Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     219
     220{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     221**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
     222}}}
     223
     224Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     225{{{#!sh
     226$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     227}}}
     228
     229The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     230
     231{{{#!div class=important
     232'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     233}}}
     234
     235== Deploying Trac
     236
     237{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     238**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation.
     239
     240If running `tracd`, the environment variable can be set system-wide or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     241
     242To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     243{{{#!sh
     244export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
     245}}}
     246
     247Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     248{{{#!sh
     249$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     250}}}
     251
     252If running the Apache web server, !Ubuntu/Debian users should add the `export` statement to `/etc/apache2/envvars`. !RedHat/CentOS/Fedora should can add the `export` statement to `/etc/sysconfig/httpd`.
     253}}}
     254
     255=== Running the Standalone Server
     256
     257After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     258{{{#!sh
     259$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     260}}}
     261
     262Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     263{{{#!sh
     264$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     265}}}
     266
     267=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     268
     269Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     270 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     271 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     272 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     273 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     274
     275Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [http://projects.unbit.it/uwsgi/wiki/Example#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     276
     277==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     278
     279Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
     280[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
     281
     282Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     283
     284For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     285{{{#!sh
     286$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     287$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     288$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     289$ ls /var/www
     290cgi-bin htdocs
     291$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     292}}}
     293
     294==== Mapping Static Resources
     295
     296Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     297
     298Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     299
     300There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     301
     302A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     303
     304The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     305 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     306 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     307 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     308 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     309
     310The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     311{{{#!apache
     312Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     313Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     314Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     315Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     316}}}
     317
     318===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     319
     320Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     321{{{#!sh
     322$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     323}}}
     324
     325Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     326{{{#!apache
     327Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
     328
     329<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     330  # For Apache 2.2
     331  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     332    Order allow,deny
     333    Allow from all
     334  </IfModule>
     335  # For Apache 2.4
     336  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     337    Require all granted
     338  </IfModule>
     339</Directory>
     340}}}
     341
     342If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     343{{{#!apache
     344<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     345  SetHandler None
     346</Location>
     347}}}
     348
     349Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     350{{{#!apache
     351Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     352
     353<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     354  # For Apache 2.2
     355  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     356    Order allow,deny
     357    Allow from all
     358  </IfModule>
     359  # For Apache 2.4
     360  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     361    Require all granted
     362  </IfModule>
     363</Directory>
     364}}}
     365
     366Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-section htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     367{{{#!ini
     368[trac]
     369htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     370}}}
     371
     372Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     373
     374Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     375{{{#!sh
     376$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     377}}}
     378
     379==== Setting up the Plugin Cache #egg-cache
     380
     381Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     382
     383If you setup hook scripts that call Trac, such as the Subversion post-commit hook script provided in the `/contrib` directory, make sure you define the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable within these scripts as well.
     384
     385== Configuring Authentication
     386
     387Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     388
     389The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     390
     391Please refer to one of the following sections:
     392 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     393 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     394 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     395
     396[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     397
     398== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     399Grant admin rights to user admin:
     400{{{#!sh
     401$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     402}}}
     403
     404This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     405
     406== Configuring Trac
     407
     408TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     409
     410== Using Trac
     411
     412Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     413
     414Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     415
     416'' Enjoy! ''
     417
     418[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     419
     420----
     421See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions